土木建筑结构的外文英文文献

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外文文献:

Building construction concrete crack of

prevention and processing

 

Abstract

The crack problem of concrete is a widespread existence but again difficult in solve of engineering actual problem, this text carried on a study analysis to a little bit familiar crack problem in the concrete engineering, and aim at concrete the circumstance put forward some prevention, processing measure.

Keyword:Concrete crack prevention processing

Foreword

  Concrete's ising 1 kind is anticipate by the freestone bone, cement, water and other mixture but formation of the in addition material of quality brittleness not and all material.Because the concrete construction transform with oneself, control etc. a series problem, harden model of in the concrete existence numerous tiny hole, spirit cave and tiny crack, is exactly because these beginning start blemish of existence just make the concrete present one some not and all the characteristic of quality.The tiny crack is a kind of harmless crack and accept concrete heavy, defend Shen and a little bit other use function not a creation to endanger.But after the concrete be subjected to lotus carry, difference in temperature etc. function, tiny crack would continuously of expand with connect, end formation we can see without the aid of instruments of macro view the crack be also the crack that the concrete often say in the engineering.

  Concrete building and Gou piece usually all take sewer to make of, because of crack of existence and development usually make inner part of reinforcing bar etc. material creation decay, lower reinforced concrete material of loading ability, durable and anti- Shen ability, influence building of external appearance, service life, severity will threat arrive people's life and property safety.A lot of all of crash of engineerings is because of the unsteady development of the crack with the result that.Modern age science research with a great deal of of the concrete engineering practice certificate, in the concrete engineering crack problem is ineluctable, also acceptable in certainly of the scope just need to adopt valid of measure will it endanger degree control at certain of scope inside.The reinforced concrete norm is also explicit provision:Some structure at place of dissimilarity under the condition allow existence certain the crack of width.But at under construction should as far as possible adopt a valid measure control crack creation, make the structure don't appear crack possibly or as far as possible decrease crack of amount and width, particularly want to as far as possible avoid harmful crack of emergence, insure engineering quality thus.

  Concrete crack creation of the reason be a lot of and have already transformed to cause of crack:Such as temperature variety, constringency, inflation, the asymmetry sink to sink etc. reason cause of crack;Have outside carry the crack that the function cause;Protected environment not appropriate the crack etc. caused with chemical effect.Want differentiation to treat in the actual engineering, work°out a problem according to the actual circumstance.

  In the concrete engineering the familiar crack and the prevention

  1.Stem Suo crack and prevention

  Stem the Suo crack much appear after the concrete protect be over of a period of time or concrete sprinkle to build to complete behind of around a week.In the cement syrup humidity of evaporate would creation stem Suo, and this kind of constringency is can't negative.Stem Suo crack of the creation be main is because of concrete inside outside humidity evaporate degree dissimilarity but cause to transform dissimilarity of result:The concrete is subjected to exterior condition of influence, surface humidity loss lead quick, transform bigger, inner part degree of humidity variety smaller transform smaller, bigger surface stem the Suo transform to be subjected to concrete inner part control, creation more big pull should dint but creation crack.The relative humidity is more low, cement syrup body stem Suo more big, stem the Suo crack be more easy creation.Stem the Suo crack is much surface parallel lines form or the net shallow thin crack, width many between 0.05-0.2 mm, the flat surface part much see in the big physical volume concrete and follow it more in thinner beam plank short to distribute.Stem Suo crack usually the anti- Shen of influence concrete, cause the durable of the rust eclipse influence concrete of reinforcing bar, under the function of the water pressure dint would creation the water power split crack influence concrete of loading dint etc..Concrete stem the Suo be main with water ash of the concrete ratio, the dosage of the composition, cement of cement, gather to anticipate of the dosage of the property and dosage, in addition etc. relevant.

  Main prevention measure:While being to choose to use the constringency quantity smaller cement, general low hot water mire and powder ash from stove cement in the adoption, lower the dosage of cement.Two is a concrete of stem the Suo be subjected to water ash ratio of influence more big, water ash ratio more big, stem Suo more big, so in the concrete match the ratio the design should as far as possible control good water ash ratio of choose to use, the Chan add in the meantime accommodation of reduce water.Three is strict control concrete mix blend with under construction of match ratio, use of concrete water quantity absolute can't big in match ratio design give settle of use water quantity.Four is the earlier period which strengthen concrete to protect, and appropriate extension protect of concrete time.Winter construction want to be appropriate extension concrete heat preservation to overlay time, and Tu2 Shua protect to protect.Five is a constitution the accommodation is in the concrete structure of the constringency sew.

  2.The Su constringency crack and prevention

  Su constringency is the concrete is before condense, surface because of lose water quicker but creation of constringency.The Su constringency crack is general at dry heat or strong wind the weather appear, crack's much presenting in the center breadth, both ends be in the centerthin and the length be different, with each other not coherent appearance.Shorter crack general long 20-30 cm, the longer crack can reach to a 2-3 m, breadth 1-5 mm.It creation of main reason is:The concrete is eventually almost having no strength or strength before the Ning very small, perhaps concrete just eventually Ning but strength very hour, be subjected to heat or compare strong wind dint of influence, the concrete surface lose water to lead quick, result in in the capillary creation bigger negative press but make a concrete physical volume sharply constringency, but at this time the strength of concrete again can't resist its constringency, therefore creation cracked.The influence concrete Su constringency open the main factor of crack to have water ash ratio, concrete of condense time, environment temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity...etc..

  Main prevention measure:One is choose to use stem the Suo value smaller higher Huo sour salt of the earlier period strength or common the Huo sour brine mire.Two is strict the control water ash ratio, the Chan add to efficiently reduce water to increment the collapse of concrete fall a degree and with easy, decrease cement and water of dosage.Three is to sprinkle before building concrete, water basic level and template even to soak through.Four is in time to overlay the perhaps damp grass mat of the plastics thin film, hemp slice etc., keep concrete eventually before the Ning surface is moist, perhaps spray to protect etc. to carry on protect in the concrete surface.Five is in the heat and strong wind the weather to want to establish to hide sun and block breeze facilities, protect in time.

  3.Sink to sink crack and prevention

  The creation which sink to sink crack is because of the structure foundation soil quality not and evenly, loose soft or return to fill soil dishonest or soak in water but result in the asymmetry sink to decline with the result that;Perhaps because of template just degree shortage, the template propped up to once be apart from big or prop up bottom loose move etc. to cause, especially at winter, the template prop up at jelly soil up, jelly the soil turn jelly empress creation asymmetry to sink to decline and cause concrete structure creation crack.This kind crack many is deep enter or pierce through sex crack, it alignment have something to do with sinking to sink a circumstance, general follow with ground perpendicular or present 30 °s-45 ° Cape direction development, bigger sink to sink crack, usually have certain of wrong, crack width usually with sink to decline quantity direct proportion relation.Crack width under the influence of temperature variety smaller.The foundation after transform stability sink to sink crack also basic tend in stability.

  Main prevention measure:One is rightness loose soft soil, return to fill soil foundation a construction at the upper part structure front should carry on necessity of Hang solid with reinforce.Two is the strength that assurance template is enough and just degree, and prop up firm, and make the foundation be subjected to dint even.Three is keep concrete from sprinkle infusing the foundation in the process is soak by water.Four is time that template tore down to can't be too early, and want to notice to dismantle a mold order of sequence.Five is at jelly soil top take to establish template to notice to adopt certain of prevention measure.

  4.Temperature crack and prevention

  Temperature crack much the occurrence is in big surface or difference in temperature variety of the physical volume concrete compare the earth area of the concrete structure.Concrete after sprinkling to build, in the hardening the process, cement water turn a creation a great deal of of water turn hot, .(be the cement dosage is in the 350-550 kg/m 3, each sign square the rice concrete will release a calories of 17500-27500 kJ and make concrete internal thus the temperature rise to reach to 70 ℃ or so even higher)Because the physical volume of concrete be more big, a great deal of of water turn hot accumulate at the concrete inner part but not easy send forth, cause inner part the temperature hoick, but the concrete surface spread hot more quick, so formation inside outside of bigger difference in temperature, the bigger difference in temperature result in inner part and exterior hot the degree of the bulge cold Suo dissimilarity, make concrete surface creation certain of pull should dint.When pull should dint exceed the anti- of concrete pull strength extreme limit, concrete surface meeting creation crack, this kind of crack much occurrence after the concrete under construction period.In the concrete of under construction be difference in temperature variety more big, perhaps is a concrete to be subjected to assault of cold wave etc., will cause concrete surface the temperature sharply descend, but creation constringency, surface constringency of the concrete be subjected to inner part concrete of control, creation very big of pull should dint but creation crack, this kind of crack usually just in more shallow scope of the concrete surface creation.

  The alignment of the temperature crack usually none settle regulation, big area structure the crack often maneuver interleave;The size bigger structure of the beam plank length, the crack run parallel with short side more;Thorough with pierce through sex of temperature crack general and short side direction parallelism or close parallelism, crack along long side cent the segment appear, in the center more airtight.Crack width the size be different, be subjected to temperature variety influence more obvious, winter compare breadth, summer more narrow.The concrete temperature crack that the heat inflation cause is usually in the center the thick both ends be thin, but cold Suo crack of thick thin variety not too obvious.The emergence of the this kind crack will cause the rust eclipse of reinforcing bar, the carbonization of concrete, the anti- jelly which lower concrete melt, anti- tired and anti- Shen ability etc..

  Main prevention measure:One is as far as possible choose to use low hot or medium hot water mire, like mineral residue cement, powder ash from stove cement...etc..Two is a decrease cement dosage, cement dosage as far as possible the control is in the 450 kg/m 3 following.Three is to lower water ash ratio, water ash of the general concrete ratio control below 0.6.Four is improvement the bone anticipate class to go together with, the Chan add powder ash from stove or efficiently reduce water etc. to come to reduce cement dosage and lower water to turn hot.Five is an improvement concrete of mix blend to process a craft, lower sprinkle of concrete to build temperature.Six is the in addition that the Chan add a have of fixed amount to reduce water and increase Su, slow Ning etc. function in the concrete, improvement the concrete mix to match a thing of mobility, protect water, lower water to turn hot, postpone hot Feng of emergence time.Seven is the heat season sprinkle to build can the adoption take to establish to hide sun plank etc. assistance measure control concrete of Wen Sheng, lower to sprinkle temperature of build the concrete.Eight is the temperature of big physical volume concrete should the dint relate to structure size, concrete structure size more big, temperature should dint more big, so want reasonable arrangement construction work preface, layering, cent the piece sprinkle to build, for the convenience of in spread hot, let up control.Nine is at great inner part constitution of the physical volume concrete cool off piping, cold water perhaps cold air cool off, let up concrete of inside outside difference in temperature.Ten is the supervision which strengthen concrete temperature, adopt to cool off in time, protection measure.11 is to reserve temperature constringency to sew.12 is to let up to control, sprinkle proper before building concrete in the Ji rock and old concrete top build a 5 mm or so sand mat a layer or usage asphalt etc. material Tu2 Shua.13 is to strengthen concrete to protect, the concrete after sprinkle build use moist grass Lian in time, hemp slice's etc. overlay, and attention sprinkle water to protect, appropriate extension protect time, assurance the concrete surface be slow-moving cool off.At the cold season, concrete surface should constitution heat preservation measure, in order to prevent cold wave assault.14 is the allocation be a little amount in the concrete of reinforcing bar perhaps add fiber material concrete of temperature crack control at certain of scope inside.

5.Crack and prevention that the chemical reaction cause

  Alkali bone's anticipating the crack that reaction crack and reinforcing bar rust eclipse cause is the most familiar in the reinforced concrete structure of because of chemical reaction but cause of crack.

  The concrete blend a future reunion creation some alkalescence ion, these ion with some activity the bone anticipate creation chemical reaction and absorb surroundings environment in of water but the physical volume enlarge, make concrete crisp loose, inflation open crack.In this kind of crack general emergence concrete structure usage period, once appear very difficult remediable, so should at under construction adopt valid the measure carry on prevention.Main of prevention measure:While being to choose to anticipate with the alkali activity small freestone bone.Two is the in addition which choose to use low lye mire with low alkali or have no alkali.Three is the Chan which choose to use accommodation with anticipate to repress an alkali bone to anticipate reaction.

  Because the concrete sprinkle to build, flap Dao bad perhaps is a reinforcing bar protection layer thinner, the harmful material get into concrete to make reinforcing bar creation rust eclipse, the reinforcing bar physical volume of the rust eclipse inflation, cause concrete bulge crack, the crack of this kind type much is a crack lengthways, follow the position of reinforcing bar appear.Usually of prevent measure from have:One is assurance reinforcing bar protection the thickness of the layer.Two is a concrete class to go together with to want good.Three is a concrete to sprinkle to note and flap Dao airtight solid.Four is a reinforcing bar surface layer Tu2 Shua antisepsis coating.

Crack processing

  The emergence of the crack not only would influence structure of whole with just degree, return will cause the rust eclipse of reinforcing bar, acceleration concrete of carbonization, lower durable and anti- of concrete tired, anti- Shen ability.Therefore according to the property of crack and concrete circumstance we want differentiation to treat, in time processing, with assurance building of safety usage.

  The repair measure of the concrete crack is main to have the following some method:Surface repair method, infuse syrup, the Qian sew method, the structure reinforce a method, concrete displacement method, electricity chemistry protection method and imitate to living from heal method.

  Surface repair the method be a kind of simple, familiar of repair method, it main be applicable to stability and to structure loading the ability don't have the surface crack of influence and deep enter crack of processing.The processing measure that is usually is a surface in crack daubery cement syrup, the wreath oxygen gum mire or at concrete surface Tu2 Shua paint, asphalt etc. antisepsis material, at protection of in the meantime for keeping concrete from continue under the influence of various function to open crack, usually can adoption the surface in crack glue to stick glass fiber cloth etc. measure.

  1, infuse syrup, the Qian sew method

  Infuse a syrup method main the concrete crack been applicable to have influence or have already defend Shen request to the structure whole of repair, it is make use of pressure equipments gum knot the material press into the crack of concrete, gum knot the material harden behind and concrete formation one be whole, thus reinforce of purpose.The in common use gum knot material has the cement the syrup, epoxy, A Ji C Xi sour ester and gather ammonia ester to equalize to learn material.

  The Qian sew a method is that the crack be a kind of most in common use method in, it usually is follow the crack dig slot, the Qian fill Su in the slot or rigid water material with attain closing crack of purpose.The in common use Su material has PVC gum mire, plastics ointment, the D Ji rubber etc.;In common use rigid water material is the polymer cement sand syrup.

  2, the structure reinforce a method

  When the crack influence arrive concrete structure of function, will consideration adopt to reinforce a method to carry on processing to the concrete structure.The structure reinforce medium in common use main have the following a few method:The piece of enlargement concrete structure in every aspect accumulate, outside the Cape department of the Gou piece pack type steel, adoption prepare should the dint method reinforce, glue to stick steel plate to reinforce, increase to establish fulcrum to reinforce and jet the concrete compensation reinforce.

  3, concrete displacement method

Concrete displacement method is processing severity damage concrete of a kind of valid method, this method be first will damage of the concrete pick and get rid of, then again displacement go into new of concrete or other material.The in common use displacement material have:Common concrete or the cement sand syrup, polymer or change sex polymer concrete or sand syrup.

  4, the electricity chemistry protection method

The electricity chemistry antisepsis is to make use of infliction electric field in lie the quality of electricity chemical effect, change concrete or reinforced concrete the environment appearance of the place, the bluntness turn reinforcing bar to attain the purpose of antisepsis.Cathode protection method, chlorine salt's withdrawing a method, alkalescence to recover a method is a chemistry protection method in three kinds of in common use but valid method.The advantage of this kind of method is a protection method under the influence of environment factor smaller, apply reinforcing bar, concrete of long-term antisepsis, since can used for crack structure already can also used for new set up structure.

  5, imitate to living from legal more

Imitate to living from heal the method be a kind of new crack treatment, its mimicry living creature organization secrete a certain material towards suffering wound part auto, but make the wound part heal of function, join some and special composition(such as contain to glue knot of the liquid Xin fiber or capsule) in the concrete of the tradition the composition, at concrete inner part formation the intelligence type imitate to living from heal nerve network system, be the concrete appear crack secrete a parts of liquid Xin fiber can make the crack re- heal.

Conclusion

The crack is widespread in the concrete structure existence of a kind of phenomenon, it of emergence not only will lower the anti- Shen of building ability, influence building of usage function, and will cause the rust eclipse of reinforcing bar, the carbonization of concrete, lower the durable of material, influence building of loading ability, so want to carry on to the concrete crack earnest research, differentiation treat, adoption reasonable of the method carry on processing, and at under construction adopt various valid of prevention measure to prevention crack of emergence and development, assurance building and Gou piece safety, stability work.

 

From《CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING》

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

中文译文:

 

建筑施工混凝土裂缝的预防与处理

 

混凝土的裂缝问题是一个普遍存在而又难于解决的工程实际问题,本文对混凝土工程中常见的一些裂缝问题进行了探讨分析,并针对具体情况提出了一些预防、处理措施。

关键词:混凝土 裂缝 预防 处理

前言

  混凝土是一种由砂石骨料、水泥、水及其他外加材料混合而形成的非均质脆性材料。由于混凝土施工和本身变形、约束等一系列问题,硬化成型的混凝土中存在着众多的微孔隙、气穴和微裂缝,正是由于这些初始缺陷的存在才使混凝土呈现出一些非均质的特性。微裂缝通常是一种无害裂缝,对混凝土的承重、防渗及其他一些使用功能不产生危害。但是在混凝土受到荷载、温差等作用之后,微裂缝就会不断的扩展和连通,最终形成我们肉眼可见的宏观裂缝,也就是混凝土工程中常说的裂缝。

  混凝土建筑和构件通常都是带缝工作的,由于裂缝的存在和发展通常会使内部的钢筋等材料产生腐蚀,降低钢筋混凝土材料的承载能力、耐久性及抗渗能力,影响建筑物的外观、使用寿命,严重者将会威胁到人们的生命和财产安全。很多工程的失事都是由于裂缝的不稳定发展所致。近代科学研究和大量的混凝土工程实践证明,在混凝土工程中裂缝问题是不可避免的,在一定的范围内也是可以接受的,只是要采取有效的措施将其危害程度控制在一定的范围之内。钢筋混凝土规范也明确规定:有些结构在所处的不同条件下,允许存在一定宽度的裂缝。但在施工中应尽量采取有效措施控制裂缝产生,使结构尽可能不出现裂缝或尽量减少裂缝的数量和宽度,尤其要尽量避免有害裂缝的出现,从而确保工程质量。

  混凝土裂缝产生的原因很多,有变形引起的裂缝:如温度变化、收缩、膨胀、不均匀沉陷等原因引起的裂缝;有外载作用引起的裂缝;有养护环境不当和化学作用引起的裂缝等等。在实际工程中要区别对待,根据实际情况解决问题。

  混凝土工程中常见裂缝及预防:

  1.干缩裂缝及预防

  干缩裂缝多出现在混凝土养护结束后的一段时间或是混凝土浇筑完毕后的一周左右。水泥浆中水分的蒸发会产生干缩,且这种收缩是不可逆的。干缩裂缝的产生主要是由于混凝土内外水分蒸发程度不同而导致变形不同的结果:混凝土受外部条件的影响,表面水分损失过快,变形较大,内部湿度变化较小变形较小,较大的表面干缩变形受到混凝土内部约束,产生较大拉应力而产生裂缝。相对湿度越低,水泥浆体干缩越大,干缩裂缝越易产生。干缩裂缝多为表面性的平行线状或网状浅细裂缝,宽度多在0.05-0.2mm之间,大体积混凝土中平面部位多见,较薄的梁板中多沿其短向分布。干缩裂缝通常会影响混凝土的抗渗性,引起钢筋的锈蚀影响混凝土的耐久性,在水压力的作用下会产生水力劈裂影响混凝土的承载力等等。混凝土干缩主要和混凝土的水灰比、水泥的成分、水泥的用量、集料的性质和用量、外加剂的用量等有关。

  主要预防措施:一是选用收缩量较小的水泥,一般采用中低热水泥和粉煤灰水泥,降低水泥的用量。二是混凝土的干缩受水灰比的影响较大,水灰比越大,干缩越大,因此在混凝土配合比设计中应尽量控制好水灰比的选用,同时掺加合适的减水剂。三是严格控制混凝土搅拌和施工中的配合比,混凝土的用水量绝对不能大于配合比设计所给定的用水量。四是加强混凝土的早期养护,并适当延长混凝土的养护时间。冬季施工时要适当延长混凝土保温覆盖时间,并涂刷养护剂养护。五是在混凝土结构中设置合适的收缩缝。

  2.塑性收缩裂缝及预防

  塑性收缩是指混凝土在凝结之前,表面因失水较快而产生的收缩。塑性收缩裂缝一般在干热或大风天气出现,裂缝多呈中间宽、两端细且长短不一,互不连贯状态。较短的裂缝一般长20-30cm,较长的裂缝可达2-3m,宽1-5mm.其产生的主要原因为:混凝土在终凝前几乎没有强度或强度很小,或者混凝土刚刚终凝而强度很小时,受高温或较大风力的影响,混凝土表面失水过快,造成毛细管中产生较大的负压而使混凝土体积急剧收缩,而此时混凝土的强度又无法抵抗其本身收缩,因此产生龟裂。影响混凝土塑性收缩开裂的主要因素有水灰比、混凝土的凝结时间、环境温度、风速、相对湿度等等。

  主要预防措施:一是选用干缩值较小早期强度较高的硅酸盐或普通硅酸盐水泥。二是严格控制水灰比,掺加高效减水剂来增加混凝土的坍落度和和易性,减少水泥及水的用量。三是浇筑混凝土之前,将基层和模板浇水均匀湿透。四是及时覆盖塑料薄膜或者潮湿的草垫、麻片等,保持混凝土终凝前表面湿润,或者在混凝土表面喷洒养护剂等进行养护。五是在高温和大风天气要设置遮阳和挡风设施,及时养护。

  3.沉陷裂缝及预防

  沉陷裂缝的产生是由于结构地基土质不匀、松软或回填土不实或浸水而造成不均匀沉降所致;或者因为模板刚度不足,模板支撑间距过大或支撑底部松动等导致,特别是在冬季,模板支撑在冻土上,冻土化冻后产生不均匀沉降,致使混凝土结构产生裂缝。此类裂缝多为深进或贯穿性裂缝,其走向与沉陷情况有关,一般沿与地面垂直或呈30°-45°角方向发展,较大的沉陷裂缝,往往有一定的错位,裂缝宽度往往与沉降量成正比关系。裂缝宽度受温度变化的影响较小。地基变形稳定之后,沉陷裂缝也基本趋于稳定。

  主要预防措施:一是对松软土、回填土地基在上部结构施工前应进行必要的夯实和加固。二是保证模板有足够的强度和刚度,且支撑牢固,并使地基受力均匀。三是防止混凝土浇灌过程中地基被水浸泡。四是模板拆除的时间不能太早,且要注意拆模的先后次序。五是在冻土上搭设模板时要注意采取一定的预防措施。

  4.温度裂缝及预防

  温度裂缝多发生在大体积混凝土表面或温差变化较大地区的混凝土结构中。混凝土浇筑后,在硬化过程中,水泥水化产生大量的水化热,(当水泥用量在350-550 kg/m3,每立方米混凝土将释放出17500-27500kJ的热量,从而使混凝土内部温度升达70℃左右甚至更高)。由于混凝土的体积较大,大量的水化热聚积在混凝土内部而不易散发,导致内部温度急剧上升,而混凝土表面散热较快,这样就形成内外的较大温差,较大的温差造成内部与外部热胀冷缩的程度不同,使混凝土表面产生一定的拉应力。当拉应力超过混凝土的抗拉强度极限时,混凝土表面就会产生裂缝,这种裂缝多发生在混凝土施工中后期。在混凝土的施工中当温差变化较大,或者是混凝土受到寒潮的袭击等,会导致混凝土表面温度急剧下降,而产生收缩,表面收缩的混凝土受内部混凝土的约束,将产生很大的拉应力而产生裂缝,这种裂缝通常只在混凝土表面较浅的范围内产生。

  温度裂缝的走向通常无一定规律,大面积结构裂缝常纵横交错;梁板类长度尺寸较大的结构,裂缝多平行于短边;深入和贯穿性的温度裂缝一般与短边方向平行或接近平行,裂缝沿着长边分段出现,中间较密。裂缝宽度大小不一,受温度变化影响较为明显,冬季较宽,夏季较窄。高温膨胀引起的混凝土温度裂缝是通常中间粗两端细,而冷缩裂缝的粗细变化不太明显。此种裂缝的出现会引起钢筋的锈蚀,混凝土的碳化,降低混凝土的抗冻融、抗疲劳及抗渗能力等。

  主要预防措施:一是尽量选用低热或中热水泥,如矿渣水泥、粉煤灰水泥等。二是减少水泥用量,将水泥用量尽量控制在450kg/m3以下。三是降低水灰比,一般混凝土的水灰比控制在0.6以下。四是改善骨料级配,掺加粉煤灰或高效减水剂等来减少水泥用量,降低水化热。五是改善混凝土的搅拌加工工艺,降低混凝土的浇筑温度。六是在混凝土中掺加一定量的具有减水、增塑、缓凝等作用的外加剂,改善混凝土拌合物的流动性、保水性,降低水化热,推迟热峰的出现时间。七是高温季节浇筑时可以采用搭设遮阳板等辅助措施控制混凝土的温升,降低浇筑混凝土的温度。八是大体积混凝土的温度应力与结构尺寸相关,混凝土结构尺寸越大,温度应力越大,因此要合理安排施工工序,分层、分块浇筑,以利于散热,减小约束。九是在大体积混凝土内部设置冷却管道,通冷水或者冷气冷却,减小混凝土的内外温差。十是加强混凝土温度的监控,及时采取冷却、保护措施。十一是预留温度收缩缝。十二是减小约束,浇筑混凝土前宜在基岩和老混凝土上铺设5mm左右的砂垫层或使用沥青等材料涂刷。十三是加强混凝土养护,混凝土浇筑后,及时用湿润的草帘、麻片等覆盖,并注意洒水养护,适当延长养护时间,保证混凝土表面缓慢冷却。在寒冷季节,混凝土表面应设置保温措施,以防止寒潮袭击。十四是混凝土中配置少量的钢筋或者掺入纤维材料将混凝土的温度裂缝控制在一定的范围之内。

5.化学反应引起的裂缝及预防

  碱骨料反应裂缝和钢筋锈蚀引起的裂缝是钢筋混凝土结构中最常见的由于化学反应而引起的裂缝。

  混凝土拌和后会产生一些碱性离子,这些离子与某些活性骨料产生化学反应并吸收周围环境中的水而体积增大,造成混凝土酥松、膨胀开裂。这种裂缝一般出现中混凝土结构使用期间,一旦出现很难补救,因此应在施工中采取有效措施进行预防。主要的预防措施:一是选用碱活性小的砂石骨料。二是选用低碱水泥和低碱或无碱的外加剂。三是选用合适的掺和料抑制碱骨料反应。

  由于混凝土浇筑、振捣不良或者是钢筋保护层较薄,有害物质进入混凝土使钢筋产生锈蚀,锈蚀的钢筋体积膨胀,导致混凝土胀裂,此种类型的裂缝多为纵向裂缝,沿钢筋的位置出现。通常的预防措施有:一是保证钢筋保护层的厚度。二是混凝土级配要良好。三是混凝土浇注要振捣密实。四是钢筋表层涂刷防腐涂料。

裂缝处理

  裂缝的出现不但会影响结构的整体性和刚度,还会引起钢筋的锈蚀、加速混凝土的碳化、降低混凝土的耐久性和抗疲劳、抗渗能力。因此根据裂缝的性质和具体情况我们要区别对待、及时处理,以保证建筑物的安全使用。

  混凝土裂缝的修补措施主要有以下一些方法:表面修补法,灌浆、嵌缝封堵法,结构加固法,混凝土置换法,电化学防护法以及仿生自愈合法。

  表面修补法是一种简单、常见的修补方法,它主要适用于稳定和对结构承载能力没有影响的表面裂缝以及深进裂缝的处理。通常的处理措施是在裂缝的表面涂抹水泥浆、环氧胶泥或在混凝土表面涂刷油漆、沥青等防腐材料,在防护的同时为了防止混凝土受各种作用的影响继续开裂,通常可以采用在裂缝的表面粘贴玻璃纤维布等措施。

  1、灌浆、嵌缝封堵法

  灌浆法主要适用于对结构整体性有影响或有防渗要求的混凝土裂缝的修补,它是利用压力设备将胶结材料压入混凝土的裂缝中,胶结材料硬化后与混凝土形成一个整体,从而起到封堵加固的目的。常用的胶结材料有水泥浆、环氧树脂、甲基丙烯酸酯、聚氨酯等化学材料。

  嵌缝法是裂缝封堵中最常用的一种方法,它通常是沿裂缝凿槽,在槽中嵌填塑性或刚性止水材料,以达到封闭裂缝的目的。常用的塑性材料有聚氯乙烯胶泥、塑料油膏、丁基橡胶等等;常用的刚性止水材料为聚合物水泥砂浆。

  2、结构加固法

  当裂缝影响到混凝土结构的性能时,就要考虑采取加固法对混凝土结构进行处理。结构加固中常用的主要有以下几种方法:加大混凝土结构的截面面积,在构件的角部外包型钢、采用预应力法加固、粘贴钢板加固、增设支点加固以及喷射混凝土补强加固。

  3、混凝土置换法

  混凝土置换法是处理严重损坏混凝土的一种有效方法,此方法是先将损坏的混凝土剔除,然后再置换入新的混凝土或其他材料。常用的置换材料有:普通混凝土或水泥砂浆、聚合物或改性聚合物混凝土或砂浆。

  4、电化学防护法

  电化学防腐是利用施加电场在介质中的电化学作用,改变混凝土或钢筋混凝土所处的环境状态,钝化钢筋,以达到防腐的目的。阴极防护法、氯盐提取法、碱性复原法是化学防护法中常用而有效的三种方法。这种方法的优点是防护方法受环境因素的影响较小,适用钢筋、混凝土的长期防腐,既可用于已裂结构也可用于新建结构。

  5、仿生自愈合法

  仿生自愈合法是一种新的裂缝处理方法,它模仿生物组织对受创伤部位自动分泌某种物质,而使创伤部位得到愈合的机能,在混凝土的传统成分中加入某些特殊成分(如含粘结剂的液芯纤维或胶囊),在混凝土内部形成智能型仿生自愈合神经网络系统,当混凝土出现裂缝时分泌出部分液芯纤维可使裂缝重新愈合。

  结 论

裂缝是混凝土结构中普遍存在的一种现象,它的出现不仅会降低建筑物的抗渗能力,影响建筑物的使用功能,而且会引起钢筋的锈蚀,混凝土的碳化,降低材料的耐久性,影响建筑物的承载能力,因此要对混凝土裂缝进行认真研究、区别对待,采用合理的方法进行处理,并在施工中采取各种有效的预防措施来预防裂缝的出现和发展,保证建筑物和构件安全、稳定地工作。

 

                                         出自《加拿大土木工程学报》


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