分 类 号： H31 密 级： 无
A Research on the Differences of Chinese and Western Etiquette in Cross Cultural Communication
系别 专业： 西语系 商务英语
姓名 学号： 马婷婷 1305040214
年级 班级： 2013级 2班
日期： 年 月 日
日期： 年 月 日
Under the situation of multicultural coexistence and mutual communication, people have a new understanding of the differences between Chinese and Western etiquette. Under the background of cross-cultural communication between Chinese and western, the forms of cultural differences between China and the West include language differences in business etiquette, differences in ceremonial and differences between Chinese and Western family etiquette. This research mainly for Chinese and western cultural differences in cross-cultural communication, form the thorough analysis, by analyzing the difference between different Chinese and western etiquette, reflect the rich diversity of Chinese and western culture in language, table manners. Different countries have different cultural characteristics, whether culture is good or bad. Different national culture have different charm, all of them are worth learning and using for reference and helping us to improve the effectiveness of intercultural communication, cross-cultural communication better.
Key words：Cross - cultural communication;Chinese and Western;differences;etiquette
With the development of reform and opening up, intercultural communication is increasing, and the differences between China and the west. Because of the different cultural backgrounds of different countries and the great differences between Chinese and Western cultures, these differences lead to unnecessary misunderstanding and jokes. The purpose of this paper is to study the differences between Chinese and Western etiquette in intercultural communication, such as daily expressions, banquet etiquette and family etiquette. This helps to promote the economic, political and cultural contacts between Chinese and Western intercultural communication.
Every nation has its own language. The languages have unique meaning and characteristics in each nation. Chinese and Western people are under the different background, so the misleading of languages is normal. And learning a kind of language is also knowing about a country’s culture.
Western ceremonies emphasize practical, expressive straightforward. Oriental polite manners compared with the Western manners, it often appears humble and subtle.
Daily greeting, Chinese people mostly use “Do you eat?” “Where do you eat?” and so on. This reflects a kind of intimacy between people. For Westerners, this way of greeting makes the other side feel confused, embarrassed, or even unpleasant because westerners understand this question as a “interrogate” and think the other side is asking his or her private life. In the West, when people greet with each other, they just say,“ Hello”, “ Good morning!”, “How are you doing”, etc.
In daily life, western people are used to talk about the weather. But in China, they may ask “where are you going?” In western culture, they will answer impolite “It has nothing to do with you.” The different concept causes the misleading.
Generally speaking, in China, calling people’s given name only occurs when they are very close or they are familiar. But in the West, “call people’s given name” is impolite in some situations. In the West, people usually use “gentleman” and “lady” to call a stranger or someone whom they are not familiar with. They call unmarried female “Miss” and married female “Mrs”, or use “Ms” to address both married and unmarried females. As for family members, regardless of longevity, generally they call each other’s name or nickname. At home, they just call their father’s and mother's name directly.
In addition, all the male elders can be called “uncle”, and all female elders can be called “aunt”. But in China, we must distinguish between seniority, the young, the old or other relations, otherwise this is regarded as impolite. In the West, calling people’s given name show their close relationship or means being friendly. People like to call their names and this often happens at the beginning of a conversation.
In China, people like to be called with a title, that is, family name plus a title, such as Manager Liu, President Zhang, etc. because this is a symbol of status . But in the West, people rarely use formal titles to call others. Official titles only for judges, senior government officials, officers, doctors, professors and senior religious figures. It is worth noting that the West has never used administrative duties such as the Secretary, Managers, Principals and other titles to call others.
There are many different farewells in cross cultural communication. If the farewell to the patient, the Chinese people often say “drink plenty of water”, “wear more clothes”, “go to bed early”, “the patient can care” and so on, But the Westerners will never say like that, because it would be considered to be finger-piercing. For example, they will say “more care” or “hope you recover soon” and so on.
For example, when the Chinese people go to other people’s home, if they want to leave, most of them will say “I'd better be leaving now. You must be very tired.” While the American will say “I had better let you sleep” “I think I have to leave now. It’s very nice to talk with you.” The American think it’s polite. In China, when the guests leave, the host will send the guests to the door and say “walk slowly”. The foreigners will think “why should I walk slowly?” The American think it’s a request. But it’s a way for Chinese to express.
Facing the attitude of people who are taken praise, the East and West are not the same. In the face of other people’s praise, the Chinese people often feel embarrassed. They often say that I am far worse than words. They are very modest. Westerners often express sincere praise face to face. They often say thank you and accept each other’s good intentions.
For example, in China, if they say “You are looking very smart today”, then they will answer “No, I’m ugly. ” But the western people will answer differently “Thank you,so are you.” So you can find the Chinese euphemistic, instead the western people are direct.
3.1 Differences on Parties
Mr. Yi Zhongtian once in the Western culture “questioned the desktop” in the brilliant explanation: the core of Chinese cultural thought is “group consciousness”, the core of Western cultural thought is “personal consciousness”. So Westerners in a timely manner to eat, order and drink. Chinese culture believes that individuals must obey the Chinese people's overall wishes for dinner, focusing on the food itself. The food at the banquet must be abundant.
Westerners’ diet is different from that of Chinese people. Mr. Lin Yutang said: “British beauty can only enter the biological machine fuel, as long as the body after eating can be strong enough to resist bacterial infection, the other is insignificant.”
3.2 Differences on Banquet
Chinese people often use round tables when treating guests. In different places, there are many differences to indicate different states when people sit around the round table. Different seats around the round table also have the status of the seat. Small banquet consists of two tables, usually in the form of a row or a row of tables. When the two tables are horizontal, facing the right side of the table is the main table; when the two tables are vertical, the furthest from the main entrance is the main table. Dinner consists of three tables, not only you should pay attention to the rules, such as the “facade positioning”, “right respect”, “farther”, but also from the table to consider the location of the main table.Usually, the closer the table is, the higher the status is.Instead of the farther, the lower. For example, the wedding table, the more close to the wedding table, the higher status is. The family and the leader on the table are arranged on the nearest table to show respect for them. Western people usually use long tables at formal banquets. The height of the desktop from the main table determines the location of the distance, the more right the table, the more honorable. On the same table, the location that is closer to the owner is more distinguished.
3.2.2The setting and use of Chinese tableware placed
There are many rules about the position of tableware. The most important thing is chopsticks in China. Chopsticks must be neatly placed on the right side of the rice bowl. After dinner they must be neatly placed in the middle of the rice bowl. The main role of the spoon is to scoop dishes and food. Sometimes, when you eat with chopsticks, you can also use a spoon to assist in eating. But try not to use a spoon to pick up the dishes alone. At the same time , do not scoop over full, so as not to overflow dirty table or clothes. Plate is mainly used for filling food. According to the number of and shape of different dishes and shape, people choose different plate shapes. There are many kinds of Chinese plates and slightly smaller plates are called dishes, which is mainly used to hold food. The usage of plate is similar to that of the bowl. When people have a meal, the plates are generally required to remain in place on the table and do not pile up together. The shape of fish plat is slender because it is used to lay on the fish. There is a kind of special plate. The main role of food plate in the middle of the table is to use the plate from the public dish to enjoy the dishes. When using the food dish, generally do not take too many dishes in the food dish. Not only it looks chaotic, but also like hungry ghosts. Cup, which is mainly used to hold the tea. Glasses can be used to hold drinks or fruit juice. Westerners emphasize the concept of healthy diet, regardless of food color, smell, taste or shape. They strive to taste lightly and keep a balanced diet. Western people think that diet is only a means, so enjoying the diet does not account for important position. In addition, westerners pay attention to food nutrition when they cook food. They are committed to the development and study of food in different states of nutritional differences. Even if the taste of different food is similar, they can finish all because they think those kinds of food is nutritive.
There are also differences on table manners. There are fundamental differences between Chinese and Western table manners. Chinese people eat for life. They always spend a long time when eating on the table.They are used to urging to drink and enjoying delicious food. But no matter how abundant the dishes are, the owner still show his or her hospitality by saying,“ there are not many dishes.”. While western people just eat their own quietly.Generally, the owner says “please help”. Western food generally has four to five dishes. Balanced diet is the best. If the banquet is held at home, it is better to finish all the dishes because the hostess is happy and thinks you like to eat her dishes. In the face of rich feast, the master will say “enjoy yourself , welcome everyone”. In addition, in western countries,they do not ask “Have you had something?” or “What have you had”? These greetings are misunderstood easily. For example, in the UK, if you were asked for dinner, it means that you are going to be invited to eat. For unmarried men and women, it also shows that you are interested in each other.
3.3 The Differences on Chinese and Western Family Ceremony
Because of the world of civilization etiquette, for thousands of years,it has been adhering to the fine tradition of the Chinese nation, civilized dress, respect for young, humble and friendly, warm and friendly.They are always respecting the freedom of the West. People know that the most important thing is the people are free.They are able to arrange their own. This kind of ideological and cultural difference is embodied in various ways.
Family is the basic unit of society.It is closely linked to the whole society.It is the foundation and indispensable part of social life..The relationship between you and the community can be said to be local and overall ..The entire economic society , political culture and other fields can restrict, infiltrate and affect the existence and development of various families.The family is the epitome of society, and the family is the cell of community. It provides people with basic social life environment. If the family environment is stable, healthy, social life and economic development play a catalytic and stable role. On the contrary, if the family life is unstable and unhealthy, social life and economic development will have a destructive effect.
Family etiquette refers to people in the long-term family life exchange ideas and information, contact feelings and gradually it formed a common sense of the code of conduct and etiquette. “Family Harmony”is the most important. This “harmony” is the meaning of the courtesy . “Parental and prosperous life together”between the husband and the wife can make the life happy.
Family etiquette plays an important role in daily life . In brief, family etiquette is the basis of maintaining stability and achieving happiness. Family rituals can regulate family members to achieve a harmonious relationship , but also conducive to the promotion of social and national development.
3.3.3 The Differences of Rites between Chinese and Western Families
Love is an important part of traditional Chinese ritual education.It embodied the responsibility and obligation to parents for their children.It is well known to the Chinese people, it is easy to know that the role of traditional Chinese parents is not only teaching and educating children, but also it is not the only way.Parents have the obligation to correct and help children at any time Whether or not grow up,they are responsible for their children all the time.As for Chinese education,I’m afraid that western people can’t accept.
Even if it is extremely advocating freedom, people-oriented Western people can not escape the obligations. Only this obligation can have a more specific time limit of human -18 years old. Before the age of 18, parents have to teach their children to learn the independence It is necessary to prepare for the children to leave home. This is a response to life skills. The director of the contract society always pays attention to accurating calculation.When children grow up, the parents do not have the right to continue to raise them. Going home to eat a minute also has to calculate clearly. As parents expect, many children are self-reliant, and it is gratifying that their ability to deal with difficult problems is really strong. Because the choice of parents did not seem to “human” education.
3.3.4 Differences between children and parents
In traditional Chinese families, parents always guide their children in the right direction And rarely let their children try and give them the opportunity to make mistakes and correct themselves. Some parents even can not afford children rebuttal and objection. However, Western people can not accept this view. Regardless of the young and the old. they insist on equality of family status.Chinese parents in the family respect their children’s views and opinions, even if it is wrong. They thought "it was not a matter of fact." There is such a story, in an American family, a winter morning, the little girl does not listen to the parents’ advice.She insisted on wearing a summer skirt. The father did not force her to wear cotton-padded clothes, but let her think by herself. The results can be imagined, the girls realized her stubborn mistakes.She took the initiative to the family admit, and then put on the coat consciously. However, for a Chinese family, parents will do what parents can know the wrong on the basis of the child also support the wrong idea?
Filial piety culture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture, but also an indispensable element to understand Chinese culture.Mr. Sun Yat-sen once said: “Now the most civilized country in the world ,Chinese is the most completely about filial piety.” It can be seen that the focus on filial piety is not to have the ability to adopt a young mother, but to respect. Respect is as a starting point. The so-called respect is to let the elderly live with dignity, but also live happy and have the balance of mind, enjoy old age. In the past, the people attached importance of family etiquette generally.The children must obey the words of the parents.If you do not listen to the old man,you will suffer in sight. Until now, the vast majority of Chinese children still inherited the fine tradition .They will have filial piety to their parents all the time. In the family, taking time to take into account the feelings of parents and the interests in the child language decent, humble and polite. If you ask the Westerners who know the family members, they will not think of the answer, the husband. If you ask them how to position their parents, they think that parents are separate from children and spouses alone. Focusing on vertical blood relationship between the Chinese families is very different.Western people pay more attention to horizontal self-centered. Therefore, for the Western old living alone, or sick old man living in the old home we are not surprised. At the same time, it is also suggested that the strong and independent Westerners, in order not to bear the burden of their children, deny the social people think that their old and incompetent wrong views.They insist on living alone, not living with their children.
China is concerned about the implicit expression.Westerners tend to express directly.The Chinese children never say good morning or good night.But the West children always put good morning and good night on the mouth. Chinese children have to say please, thank you and sorry . The children of the West always say please, thank you and excuse me.So the habits of them are very different.
All in all, Chinese and Western cultures are abundant and varied. This article is reflected in the language, table tables and the etiquette.Different countries have different cultural characteristics. Although they are different, regardless of the culture is good or bad. But different countries have different charm.
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根据 GB 3469规定，以单字母方式标识以下各种参考文献类型：
专著[M]. 论文集[C]. 报纸文章[N]. 期刊文章[J]. 学位论文[D]. 报告[R]. 标准[S]. 专利 [P]. 。对于专著、论文集中的析出文献，其文献类型标识建议采用单字母“[A]”；对于其他未说明的文献类型，建议采用单字母“[Z]”。
对于数据库(database)、计算机程序(computer program)及电子公告(electronic bulletin board)等电子文献类型的参考文献，建议以下列双字母作为标识：
数据库[DB]. 计算机程序[CP]. 电子公告[EB]
对于非纸张型载体的电子文献，当被引用为参考文献时需在参考文献类型标识中同时标明其载体类型。本规范建议采用双字母表示电子文献载体类型：磁带(magnetic tape)——[MT]. 磁盘(disk)——[DK]. 光盘(CD-ROM)——[CD]. 联机网络(online)——[OL]. 并以下列格式表示包括了文献载体类型的参考文献类型标识：
如：［DB/OL］—— 联机网上数据库(database online)
［DB/MT］—— 磁带数据库(database on magnetic tape)
［M/CD］—— 光盘图书(monograph on CD-ROM)
［CP/DK］—— 磁盘软件(computer program on disk)
［J/OL］—— 网上期刊(serial online)
［EB/OL］—— 网上电子公告(electronic bulletin board online)
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